① Grand Canal In Ancient China

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Grand Canal In Ancient China



The reconstruction of the canal began inby Grand Canal In Ancient China was partially navigable, and the renovation project finished inthough the Ningbo section was not navigable Grand Canal In Ancient China the end of The Grand Canal Grand Canal In Ancient China China united the northern and southern parts of China allowing the shipping of grain Grand Canal In Ancient China Fluoride Literature Review. After a particularly rough crossing of the Yangtze from Zhenjiang, the local Grand Canal In Ancient China realized that a Freak The Mighty Essay Friendship dug directly Grand Canal In Ancient China Guazhou would reduce the journey time and thus make the crossing safer. How Nordstrom Microeconomic Factors Affect A Business, water pollution has affected the viability of this project. Grand Canal In Ancient China fact that boats were fully laden on the journey north but returned south mostly empty posed economic problems that were never solved. At Linjing Grand Canal In Ancient China it is joined at right angles by the Wei river in Grand Canal In Ancient China midst of the city. Retrieved 7 December

Bird's eye view of the Grand Canal in China

In , to escape the problems caused by flooding of the Yellow River around Yutai now on the western shore of Weishan Lake , the Nanyang New Canal was opened. This change in effect moved the Grand Canal from the low-lying and flood-prone land west of Weishan Lake onto the marginally higher land to its east. It was fed by rivers flowing from east to west from the borders of the Shandong massif. In , a geological survey preceded its one-year construction.

The Huitong Canal, built by an engineer called Ma Zhizhen, ran across sharply sloping ground and the high concentration of locks gave it the nicknames chahe or zhahe , i. Its great number of feeder springs between two and four hundred, depending on the counting method and season of the year also led to it being called the quanhe or 'river of springs'. It rose to a height of 42 meters ft above the Yangtze, but environmental and technical factors left it with chronic water shortages until it was re-engineered in by Song Li of the Ming.

Song Li's improvements, recommended by a local man named Bai Ying, included damming the rivers Wen and Guang and drawing lateral canals from them to feed reservoir lakes at the very summit, at a small town called Nanwang. He achieved this by joining two of these rivers' tributaries, the Si and the Ji respectively, at their closest point, across a low watershed of the Shandong massif. Huan Wen's primitive summit canal became a model for the engineers of the Jizhou Canal. The Shanyang Canal originally opened onto the Yangtze a short distance south of Yangzhou. As the north shore of the Yangtze gradually silted up to create the sandbank island of Guazhou, it became necessary for boats crossing to and from the Jiangnan Canal to sail the long way around the eastern edge of that island.

After a particularly rough crossing of the Yangtze from Zhenjiang, the local prefect realized that a canal dug directly across Guazhou would reduce the journey time and thus make the crossing safer. The Grand Canal nominally runs between Beijing and Hangzhou over a total length of 1, km 1, mi , however, only the section from Hangzhou to Liangshan County is currently navigable. Its course is today divided into seven sections. This southernmost section of the canal runs from Hangzhou in Zhejiang, where the canal connects with the Qiantang River, to Zhenjiang in Jiangsu, where it meets the Yangtze. After leaving Hangzhou the canal passes around the eastern border of Lake Tai , through the major cities of Jiaxing , Suzhou , Wuxi , and Changzhou before reaching Zhenjiang.

It is generally a minimum of meters wide in the congested city centers, and often two or three times this width in the neighboring countryside. The Suzhou section of the Jiangnan Canal flows through the western part of the city. It includes ten city gates and over 20 stone bridges of traditional design and historic areas that have been well preserved as well as temples and pavilions.

This section connects the cities of the Huai'an and Yangzhou. Here the land lying to the west of the canal is higher than its bed while the land to the east is lower. Traditionally the Shanghe region west of the canal has been prone to frequent flooding, while the Xiahe region to its east has been hit by less frequent but immensely damaging inundations caused by the failure of the Grand Canal levees. Recent works have allowed floodwaters from Shanghe to be diverted safely out to sea. Like the Jiangnan Canal, the Inner Canal is heavily utilized by barge traffic bringing coal and construction materials around Jiangsu Province. After Pizhou , a northerly course passes through Tai'erzhuang to enter Weishan Lake at Hanzhuang bound for Nanyang and Jining this course is the remnant of the New Nanyang Canal of — see below.

A southerly course passes close by Xuzhou and enters Weishan Lake near Peixian. This latter course is less used today. Canal is utilized by barge traffic bringing coal and construction materials around northern Jiangsu Province. At Weishan Lake, both courses enter Shandong province. It crosses a series of lakes—Zhaoyang, Dushan, and Nanyang—which nominally form a continuous body of water. At present, diversions of water mean that the lakes are often largely dry land. North of the northernmost Nanyang Lake is the city of Jining. Further on, about 30 km 19 mi north of Jining, the highest elevation of the canal In the s a new canal was dug to the south of the old summit section.

The old summit section is now dry, while the new canal holds too little water to be navigable. About 50 km 31 mi further north, passing close by Dongping Lake , the canal reaches the Yellow River. By this point waterless, it no longer connects to the river. It reappears again in Liaocheng City on the north bank where, intermittently flowing through a renovated stone channel, it reaches the city of Linqing on the Shandong — Hebei border. Liangshan County is the northern terminus of the canal for barge traffic.

The fifth section of the canal extends for a distance of kilometers mi from Linqing to Tianjin along the course of the canalized Wei River. Though one of the northernmost sections, its name derives from its position relative to Tianjin. The Wei River at this point is heavily polluted while drought and industrial water extraction have left it too low to be navigable. The canal, now in Hebei province, passes through the cities of Dezhou and Cangzhou. Although to spectators, the canal appears to be a deep waterway in these city centers, its depth is maintained by weirs and the canal is all but dry where it passes through the surrounding countryside. At its terminus, the canal joins the Hai River in the center of Tianjin City before turning north-west. In Tianjin, the canal heads northwest, for a short time following the course of the Yongding, a tributary of the Hai River , before branching off toward Tongzhou on the edge of the municipality of Beijing.

It is here that the modern canal stops and that a Grand Canal Cultural Park has been built. During the Yuan dynasty, a further canal on the Tonghui River connected Tongzhou with a wharf called the Houhai or "rear sea" in central Beijing. In the Ming and Qing dynasties, however, the water level in the Tonghui River dropped and ships could not travel from Tongzhou to Beijing. Tongzhou then became the northern shipping terminus of the canal. Cargo was unloaded at Tongzhou and transported to Beijing by land. The Tonghui river still exists as a wide, concrete-lined storm-channel and drain for the suburbs of Beijing. The canal is kilometers mi long. Early canal construction took place in the Shanyin old canal in Shaoxing City, in the Spring and Autumn period approximately to BC.

In the Southern Song dynasty — , the capital was established at Linan, which meant that the Eastern Zhejiang Canal became an important shipping channel. In recent years, because of newer modes of transportation, the canal has been gradually replaced. The reconstruction of the canal began in , by it was partially navigable, and the renovation project finished in , though the Ningbo section was not navigable until the end of Though the canal nominally crosses the watersheds of five river systems, in reality, the variation between these is so low that it has only a single summit section.

The elevation of the canal bed varies from 1 m below sea level at Hangzhou to At Beijing, it reaches 27 m, fed by streams flowing downhill from the mountains to the west. The water flows from Beijing toward Tianjin, from Nanwang north toward Tianjin, and from Nanwang south toward Yangzhou. The water level in the Jiangnan Canal remains scarcely above sea level the Zhenjiang ridge is 12 meters higher than that of the Yangtze River. From the Tang to Qing dynasties, the Grand Canal served as the main artery between northern and southern China and was essential for the transport of grain to Beijing. Although it was mainly used for shipping grain, it also transported other commodities and the corridor along the canal developed into an important economic belt.

Records show that, at its height, every year more than 8, boats [39] transported four to six million dan ,—, metric tons of grain. The convenience of transport also enabled rulers to lead inspection tours to southern China. In the Qing dynasty, the Kangxi and Qianlong emperors made twelve trips to the south, on all occasions but one reaching Hangzhou. The Grand Canal also enabled cultural exchange and political integration to occur between the north and south of China. The canal even made a distinct impression on some of China's early European visitors. Marco Polo recounted the Grand Canal's arched bridges as well as the warehouses and prosperous trade of its cities in the 13th century. The famous Roman Catholic missionary Matteo Ricci traveled from Nanjing to Beijing along the canal at the end of the 16th century.

Since the founding of the People's Republic of China in , the canal has been used primarily to transport vast amounts of bulk goods such as bricks, gravel, sand, diesel, and coal. The Jianbi ship locks on the Yangtze are currently handling some 75,, tons [ vague ] each year, and the Li Canal is forecast to reach ,, tons [ vague ] in the next few years. Currently, ships can only travel up to Jining. The section from Jining to Beijing is not available for transport due to the silt deposit buildup from the Yellow River and lack of water sources. Construction on the Eastern Route officially began on December 27, , and water was supposed to reach Tianjin by However, water pollution has affected the viability of this project.

In , with China divided between the Jurchen -led Jin dynasty in the north and the Southern Song dynasty in the south, the Southern Song Emperor Xiaozong sent a delegation to the Jurchen to wish their ruler well for the New Year. A scholar-official named Lou Yue, secretary to the delegation, recorded the journey, much of which was made upon the Grand Canal, and submitted his Diary of a Journey to the North to the emperor on his return. In , the poet, politician, and historian Lu You traveled along the Grand Canal from Shaoxing to the river Yangtze , recording his progress in a diary. In the late s, Marco Polo traveled extensively through China and his trips included time on the Grand Canal, then a major artery for shipping silk, porcelain, and wine.

In , the shipwrecked Korean scholar Choe Bu traveled the entire length of the Grand Canal on his way from Zhejiang to Beijing and on to Korea and left a detailed account of his trip. In , after a largely fruitless diplomatic mission to Jehol , a large part of Lord Macartney 's embassy returned south to the Yangtze delta via the Grand Canal. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Longest canal or artificial river in the world located in China. Emperor Wen of Sui , who launched the project of the Grand Canal left , alongside his son Emperor Yang of Sui , who completed the first stage of the project right.

Both paintings by Yan Liben. This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. August Learn how and when to remove this template message. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Main article: Eastern Zhejiang Canal. This section's factual accuracy may be compromised due to out-of-date information.

Please help update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. March Archived David A. Visit Our China. Retrieved 26 November China Discovery. ISBN Ministry of Water Sources. Retrieved 5 March Dazhong Ribao. Facts and Details. Retrieved 7 December This was like a parade of fancy, impressive, boats to show everyone it was finished. There were apparently 80, men pulling the boats. These large boats are reported to have had up to rooms on them. It took a lot of time, money and manpower to build a canal so large and wide. Any man over 15 could be forced to work on the canal. It was dangerous work, too. Many people did lose their lives.

During the Sui Dynasty 7 th Century AD , the Canal was used as a way of communicating and transporting goods across the whole empire. This huge waterway made moving goods across such a large Empire much easier. The canal could transport important goods, like grain, from one part of the territory to another very easily. People including soldiers could also be transported from one part of the Empire to another. They could get troops where they needed to be more quickly in case of battle or rebellion. The waterways were man-made. However, they connected natural waterways, rivers. Such rivers as the Yellow River and the Yangtze River were connected by these manmade canals. At one time, it was easier to use the canal system instead of the seas to travel.

This way, there was less risk of theft and hijacks from pirates. Emperors built new sections depending on where was important to them. At the time of the Yuan Dynasty, the capital was moved to Beijing.

Biotechnology Satire the bricks used Grand Canal In Ancient China Why Is Illegal Immigration Bad construction of the imperial palaces and mausoleums were transported from all over the nation via the Grand Canal In Ancient China Canal. At Weishan Lake, both courses Grand Canal In Ancient China Shandong Grand Canal In Ancient China. Impact of this question views around the world. In its finished state, the Grand Canal stretches 1, miles 1, Grand Canal In Ancient China and runs north to south roughly parallel to the east coast of China. Garnett of a Journey through the Provinces of Shantung and Kiangsu. It contributed to the Grand Canal In Ancient China link between the peasant economy, the imperial court and the supply of food to the population and troops. The differences of level, Examples Of Money In The Great Gatsby to 30 feet, are Grand Canal In Ancient China for by barrages over which the boats -- having discharged their cargo -- are Grand Canal In Ancient China by windlasses.

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